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Process Database

The InterNano Process Database is a knowledge base of techniques for processing nanoscale materials, devices, and structures that includes step-by-step descriptions, images, notes on methodology and environmental variables, and associated references and patent information.

The purpose of the Process Database is to facilitate the sharing of appropriate process knowledge across laboratories.The processes included here have been previously published or patented.

If you have a published and/or patented process that you would like to include in the InterNano Process Database, you can either contact us and we will add the process for you, or you can register on InterNano and add the process yourself.

Fabrication of a nanoporous template from a diblock copolymer film - solvent annealing

An evaporation-induced flow in solvent cast block copolymer films can produce arrays of nanoscopic cylinders oriented normal to the surface and solvent annealing could markedly enhance the ordering of block copolymer microdomains in thin films. Without removing minor components, solvent-induced surface reconstruction can produce nanoporous structure in thin films. The porous film can be used as a template for deposition of quantum dots or as a mask for pattern transfer to the underneath substrates.

Figure 1
Fabrication of a nanoporous template from a diblock copolymer film - electric field alignment

An applied electric field aligns a cylindrical-phase diblock copolymer perpendicular to a substrate. One polymer block is removed by UV exposure and a chemical rinse to yield a nanoporous polymer film. The porous film can be used as a template for electrodeposition of metal nanowires or as a mask for reactive ion etching.

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Process Database - Unpublished

SEM images of TiO2  nanowires grown using 10 mL of DI water, 10 mL of HCl, and 1 mL of TiCl4 at 180C for 4 h on different substrates. (a) FTO substrate, top view. (b) FTO substrate, cross-sectional view. (c) Glass substrate, top view. (d) Glass substrate, perspective view. (e) ITO substrate, top view. (f) ITO substrate, perspective view. (g) Si/SiO2  substrate, top view. (h) Back side of the TiO2  film peeled off from the Si/SiO2  substrate. In every image, the inset shows the corresponding nanowires at higher resolution.
Growth of Aligned Single Crystalline Rutile TiO2 Nanowires on Arbitrary Substrates and Their application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

A process for growing single-crystalline rutile phase TiO2 nanowires on arbitrary substrates, including fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO), glass slides, tin-doped indium oxide (ITO), Si/SiO2, Si(100), Si(111), and glass rods. Various morphologies of nanowires can be achieved by varying growth parameters such as temperature, growth time, precursor concentrations and substrate positioning.

Hybrid Passivated Colloidal Quantum Dot Solids

A colloidal quantum dot hybrid passivation scheme that utilizes halide anions during the synthesis process to passivate trap sites that are inaccessible to much larger organic ligands. This scheme is demonstrated in solar cell fabrication, leading to a certified efficiency of 7.0%.

Controlled Ultrathin Films of Carbon Nanotubes for Electrochemical Applications

Films of vertically aligned CNTs prepared by chemical vapor deposition have previously been demonstrated, but their usefulness is limited by low density and high porosity.Solution processes for forming polymer-CNT nanocomposites are another method to form dense films, yet they suffer from precipitation into bundles due to strong van der Waals interactions between CNTs.Layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly, which was explained in this paper, is a versatile method to form dense thin films from dispersed solutions containing functionalized nanomaterials.

SSLbL schematic. Step 1a-e shows the deposition of a negatively charged material (nanoclay), and step 2a-e shows the same cycle repeated for a positively charged polymer.
Fast, simple and efficient assembly of nanolayered materials and devices

This is a new method of ‘directed’ self-assembly. It has the potential to simply and quickly build nanostructured materials and devices. This method is also called as spin–spray layer-by-layer self-assembly (SSLbL). It is possible to create and stack nanometer-thick, uniform layers containing a wide variety of different polymers, nanoparticles, or colloids in less than 25 s per bilayer, orders of magnitude faster than traditional LbL, using SSLbL. SSLbL is also much less wasteful of valuable nanoparticles and polymers than LbL.

Progress Towards High-Throughput Continuous Nanoimprinting

Roll-to-Roll and Roll-to-Plate processes has been demonstrated, which help in integration of emerging nanomanufacturing techniques with high throughput production infrastructure.It can overcome the challenges faced by conventional NIL in maintaining pressure uniformity and successful demolding in large-area imprinting.

Ultrahigh density alignment of carbon nanotube arrays by dielectrophoresis

The process, called Dielectrophoresis, by which single-walled carbon nanotube can be assembled, is mentioned in this paper.The SWCNT's are available in the form of surfactant-free and stable solutions.They also showed a method to control the linear density of SWCNT's s from 0.5 SWNT/¼m to more than 30 SWNT/¼m by optimization of frequency ,trapping time and by tuning the concentration of the nanotubes in the solution.

SEM surface morphology of (a) [PSSþSWNT/PVA]30 by dip-LbL, (b) [(PSSþSWNT)0.5/PVA0.5]30, (c) [(PSSþMWNT)0.5/ PVA0.5]30, (d) [(NafionþSWNT)0.5/PEI0.5]30, and (e) [(PSSþSWNT)0.5/PANI0.5]30.
Improving the assembly speed, quality, and tunability of thin conducting multilayers

Thin functional films have traditionally been produced by low-tech processes such as casting and dip-coating, but these methods are both slow and offer a low level of control over film properties. An alternative scheme is layer-by-layer assembly (LbL), but this process takes longer time. The spin-spray layer-by-layer (SSLbL) assembly technique has been introduced in this paper which provides solution for the drawbacks of all the processes mentioned above in addition to decreasing the material waste and enhance the control over film thickness.