An evaporation-induced flow in solvent cast block copolymer films can produce arrays of nanoscopic cylinders oriented normal to the surface and solvent annealing could markedly enhance the ordering of block copolymer microdomains in thin films. Without removing minor components, solvent-induced surface reconstruction can produce nanoporous structure in thin films. The porous film can be used as a template for deposition of quantum dots or as a mask for pattern transfer to the underneath substrates.
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An applied electric field aligns a cylindrical-phase diblock copolymer perpendicular to a substrate. One polymer block is removed by UV exposure and a chemical rinse to yield a nanoporous polymer film. The porous film can be used as a template for electrodeposition of metal nanowires or as a mask for reactive ion etching.