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Process Database

The InterNano Process Database is a knowledge base of techniques for processing nanoscale materials, devices, and structures that includes step-by-step descriptions, images, notes on methodology and environmental variables, and associated references and patent information.

The purpose of the Process Database is to facilitate the sharing of appropriate process knowledge across laboratories.The processes included here have been previously published or patented.

If you have a published and/or patented process that you would like to include in the InterNano Process Database, you can either contact us and we will add the process for you, or you can register on InterNano and add the process yourself.

Roll-to-Roll Electrophoretic Deposition of Hybrid Nanomaterials

Presented here is a method for assembling homogenous films of controllable thickness comprised of hybrid nanostructures on a roll-to-roll platform directly from solution. Using surfactant-free mixtures of nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanosheets, and any combination thereof, film fabrication may be achieved that maintains the chemical and physical properties inherit to the constituent material that is not limited by the presence of surfactants or impurities. Using this technique, researchers may demonstrate the viability of scalable production of a synthesized material.

ZnO nanorods on paper substrate. Image reproduced with permission from Manekkathodi, et. al. 2010. Direct Growth of Aligned Zinc Oxide Nanorods on Paper Substrates for Low-Cost Flexible Electronics. Advanced Materials 22(36): 4059-4063.
Direct Growth of Aligned Zinc Oxide Nanorods on Paper Substrates

A method for the controlled direct growth of highly crystalline ZnO nanorods on a paper substrate is described. Despite the complexity and surface roughness which paper naturally presents, adequate surface modification enhances ZnO nanorod alignment and uniformity in growth. Large scale synthesis is also demonstrated. Hybrid PN junction diodes, also on paper substrates, show application toward flexible electronics.

(a) Scheme depicting the process for dry contact transfer of aligned SWNTs as described in the text. (b) SEM image of an upright patterned growth prior to transfer, and (c) picture showing a complete transfer to a 5 mm × 5 mm wide diamond window.
Aligned Carbon Nanotube Patterning Via Dry Contact Transfer Printing

The approach of transferring CNT thin films from one surface to another via a soft lithography technique suffers from limited ability to achieve good adhesion of the CNT films to the transferred substrate and imprecise alignment of the CNT patterns. A transfer technique  that can be scaled to large area with high throughput processing at low temperature is being reported in this paper, demonstrating a scalable means to create aligned CNT thin film patterns on both rigid and flexible substrates.

Chip schematic. (a) illustrates the bias electrode used for applying the bias potential from the arbitrary function generator and the counter electrodes, which are capacitively coupled to the conductive substrate except for one, which is directly coupled to the ground. Inset (b) shows in detail the finger electrodes in yellow, over which the two-dimensional graphene nanostructures will bridge. The cross section of the finger electrode gap is depicted in (c). Reprinted from Burg BR, Lutolf F, Schneider J, Schirmer NC, Schwamb T, Poulikakos D. 2009. High-yield dielectrophoretic assembly of two-dimensional graphene nanostructures. Applied Physics Letters. 94(5). Permission pending.
High-yield dielectrophoretic assembly of two-dimensional graphene nanostructures

The serial mechanical exfoliation method available can not be used for the assembly of graphene in the large scale. In this process, deposition of ultrathin few-layer (three to ten) graphene oxide, with parallel and controllable assembly, by dielectrophoresis between prefabricated electrodes has been demonstrated.

Reprinted with permission from Torrisi F, Hasan T, Wu W, Sun Z, Lombardo A, Kulmala TS, Hsieh GW, Jung S, Bonaccorso F, Paul PJ, Chu D, Ferrari AC. 2012. Inkjet-printed graphene electronics. ACS Nano. Article ASAP. Copyright 2012 American Chemical Society
Inkjet-printed graphene electronics

Inkjet printing is a promising technique for printing of electronic materials and devices over large areas on flexible substrates. Inkjet printing is a versatile approach involving a limited number of steps with the ability to deposit controlled amounts of material. The development of inks for inkjet printing can be tailored to optimize the properties of the printed films and structures, and are additionally versatile in that virtually any nanomaterial composition can be incorporated as long as the nanostructure size is sufficiently small that the inkjet nozzle does not become clogged.

Dotted line: electrode potential, solid line: current, dashed line: EQCM frequency change
Pulse-reversed electrodeposition with QCM monitoring to make magnetic nanowires in a nanotemplate

Cobalt nanowires with high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy are formed in a diblock copolymer film template using a pulse-reversed voltage with QCM monitoring.  This in situ monitoring system along with the pulse-reversed field enables new control over the magnetic crystal growth.

Fabrication of a nanoporous template from a diblock copolymer film - neutral brush

A perpendicular orientation of cylindrical microdomains in diblock copolymer thin films is achieved by control over polymer-surface interactions. The block which forms cylindrical microdomains is removed by UV exposure and a chemical rinse to yield a nanoporous polymer film. The porous film can be used as a template for electrodeposition of metal nanodots or as a mask for reactive ion etching.