Presented here is a method for assembling homogenous films of controllable thickness comprised of hybrid nanostructures on a roll-to-roll platform directly from solution. Using surfactant-free mixtures of nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanosheets, and any combination thereof, film fabrication may be achieved that maintains the chemical and physical properties inherit to the constituent material that is not limited by the presence of surfactants or impurities. Using this technique, researchers may demonstrate the viability of scalable production of a synthesized material.
The InterNano Process Database is a knowledge base of techniques for processing nanoscale materials, devices, and structures that includes step-by-step descriptions, images, notes on methodology and environmental variables, and associated references and patent information.
The purpose of the Process Database is to facilitate the sharing of appropriate process knowledge across laboratories.The processes included here have been previously published or patented.
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A process for making flexible circuits based on semiconducting carbon nanotube networks and high capacitance ion gel dielectrics through jet printing of liquid inks.
A method for the controlled direct growth of highly crystalline ZnO nanorods on a paper substrate is described. Despite the complexity and surface roughness which paper naturally presents, adequate surface modification enhances ZnO nanorod alignment and uniformity in growth. Large scale synthesis is also demonstrated. Hybrid PN junction diodes, also on paper substrates, show application toward flexible electronics.
The approach of transferring CNT thin films from one surface to another via a soft lithography technique suffers from limited ability to achieve good adhesion of the CNT films to the transferred substrate and imprecise alignment of the CNT patterns. A transfer technique that can be scaled to large area with high throughput processing at low temperature is being reported in this paper, demonstrating a scalable means to create aligned CNT thin film patterns on both rigid and flexible substrates.
The serial mechanical exfoliation method available can not be used for the assembly of graphene in the large scale. In this process, deposition of ultrathin few-layer (three to ten) graphene oxide, with parallel and controllable assembly, by dielectrophoresis between prefabricated electrodes has been demonstrated.
Inkjet printing is a promising technique for printing of electronic materials and devices over large areas on flexible substrates. Inkjet printing is a versatile approach involving a limited number of steps with the ability to deposit controlled amounts of material. The development of inks for inkjet printing can be tailored to optimize the properties of the printed films and structures, and are additionally versatile in that virtually any nanomaterial composition can be incorporated as long as the nanostructure size is sufficiently small that the inkjet nozzle does not become clogged.
Phosphine-stabilized gold nanoparticles have a rich chemistry and are excellent building blocks for functional groups, however they have typically been synthesized through cumbersome and unsafe methods. This process is a safer, more convenient, and more versatile procedure to synthesize small, phosphine-stabilized gold nanoparticles under ambient conditions.
A simple method to control the size of Au nanoparticles via heat treatment. The Au nanoparticles grew to between 3 and 10 nm in size at 150 to 250 degrees C.
Cobalt nanowires with high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy are formed in a diblock copolymer film template using a pulse-reversed voltage with QCM monitoring. This in situ monitoring system along with the pulse-reversed field enables new control over the magnetic crystal growth.
A perpendicular orientation of cylindrical microdomains in diblock copolymer thin films is achieved by control over polymer-surface interactions. The block which forms cylindrical microdomains is removed by UV exposure and a chemical rinse to yield a nanoporous polymer film. The porous film can be used as a template for electrodeposition of metal nanodots or as a mask for reactive ion etching.
Process Database - Unpublished
A process for making bacteria-responsive films
A process for making an integrated nanofluidic device that allows sensitive detection of small amounts of molecules generated by an enzyme in real time.
A process for growing high densities of at least 1013 cm-2 vertically aligned CNTs. The method is based on cycles of deposition, annealing and immobilization of metal catalyst.
A method of growing predominantly (6,5) SWCNTs using a FeCu/MgO catalyst
A process for growing and transferring aligned SWCNTs on a wafer-scale. Growth is done on single crystal Quartz substrates.
Incorporation of Graphenes in Nanostructured TiO 2 Films via Molecular Grafting for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Application
A liquid-phase chemical process for preferential growth of long ZnO nanowires on seeded substrates based on suppressing the homogeneous nucleation while maintaining growth of pre-existing nuclei.
A process for growing single-crystalline rutile phase TiO2 nanowires on arbitrary substrates, including fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO), glass slides, tin-doped indium oxide (ITO), Si/SiO2, Si(100), Si(111), and glass rods. Various morphologies of nanowires can be achieved by varying growth parameters such as temperature, growth time, precursor concentrations and substrate positioning.
A process for growing high density single crystal Si/Ge semiconductor nanowires.
A process for growing high density ZnO nanowires into hierarchical branched structures including nanoforests.
A colloidal quantum dot hybrid passivation scheme that utilizes halide anions during the synthesis process to passivate trap sites that are inaccessible to much larger organic ligands. This scheme is demonstrated in solar cell fabrication, leading to a certified efficiency of 7.0%.
A method for fabricating floating gate memory devices using ordered gold nanoparticle/block copolymer hybrid films as the charge trapping layers, SiO2 as the diectric layer, and poly(3-hexylthiophene) as the semiconductor layer.
Method for growing ZnO nanowires characterized by low temperature growth, pattern definition using EBL and a catlayst-less procedure.
A method for creating quantum dot and polymer hydrids by grafting a block copolymer (BCP) containing thiol-anchoring moieties (poly(para-methyl triphenylamine-b-cysteamine acrylamide)) onto the surfaces of QDs through the ligand exchange procedure.
A method for creating quantum-dot light-emitting LEDs based on solution processing. The devices are demonstrably very bright and efficient.
A method to fabricate single walled Carbon nanotube field-effect transistors based on aerosol methods, with substrate deposition greatly enhanced using an electric field.
A process for making large-scale, flexible and stretchable electronics based on semiconducting single walled carbon nanotubes on a honeycomb mesh structure. In this example, the contributors have have fabricated a large area array of pressure sensors.
Films of vertically aligned CNTs prepared by chemical vapor deposition have previously been demonstrated, but their usefulness is limited by low density and high porosity.Solution processes for forming polymer-CNT nanocomposites are another method to form dense films, yet they suffer from precipitation into bundles due to strong van der Waals interactions between CNTs.Layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly, which was explained in this paper, is a versatile method to form dense thin films from dispersed solutions containing functionalized nanomaterials.
NP positioning with atomic force microscope tips has been demonstrated to provide extreme accuracy but the patterning rates are not viable for high rate nanomanufacturing.
This is a new method of ‘directed’ self-assembly. It has the potential to simply and quickly build nanostructured materials and devices. This method is also called as spin–spray layer-by-layer self-assembly (SSLbL). It is possible to create and stack nanometer-thick, uniform layers containing a wide variety of different polymers, nanoparticles, or colloids in less than 25 s per bilayer, orders of magnitude faster than traditional LbL, using SSLbL. SSLbL is also much less wasteful of valuable nanoparticles and polymers than LbL.
The Authors reported a process to incorporate functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotubes into highly tunable thin films using Layer-by-layer assembly.
Roll-to-Roll and Roll-to-Plate processes has been demonstrated, which help in integration of emerging nanomanufacturing techniques with high throughput production infrastructure.It can overcome the challenges faced by conventional NIL in maintaining pressure uniformity and successful demolding in large-area imprinting.
The process, called Dielectrophoresis, by which single-walled carbon nanotube can be assembled, is mentioned in this paper.The SWCNT's are available in the form of surfactant-free and stable solutions.They also showed a method to control the linear density of SWCNT's s from 0.5 SWNT/¼m to more than 30 SWNT/¼m by optimization of frequency ,trapping time and by tuning the concentration of the nanotubes in the solution.
Thin functional films have traditionally been produced by low-tech processes such as casting and dip-coating, but these methods are both slow and offer a low level of control over film properties. An alternative scheme is layer-by-layer assembly (LbL), but this process takes longer time. The spin-spray layer-by-layer (SSLbL) assembly technique has been introduced in this paper which provides solution for the drawbacks of all the processes mentioned above in addition to decreasing the material waste and enhance the control over film thickness.